Thursday, August 27, 2020

Reasons for Selecting Joanna Eberhart as a Representative in the Film Essay

Purposes behind Selecting Joanna Eberhart as a Representative in the Film Stepford Wives - Essay Example During the year 1975 when the film Stepford Wives was first discharged, it was generally viewed similarly as one of the chilling stories about men’s fears of woman's rights simultaneously it was considered as a story of frightfulness which filled in as a one of the social parody on bias. Without a doubt, it struck a couple women’s liberationists as a ham-fisted attempted to capitalize on the developments. Along these lines it is interested that the term ‘Stepford’ spouses that have truly appreciated such a solid importance in our way of life, is seldom utilized during a scrutinize of sexism. The term has for the most part connoted the sort of female compulsiveness that is extraordinarily prove in the household domain, however not really in the administrations offered by spouses.  This obviously brings out the current evaluate crack as opposed to miserable accommodation that ladies have over their spouses as found in the new 2004 film. Along these lines, E berhart Joanna is picked to plainly draw out the subject of the story to show how men change their spouses into some treat preparing robots. Then again, another most staying thing with respect to the first Stepford Wives, both the film and the novel is by and large how kids involve a little spot. The hero Eberhart Joanna and her significant other move out of Manhattan to a rural Connecticut in part because of the explanation that schools were greatly improved there, however there is nothing else much about that reality is made. A Stepford Wives that goes about as a parody today would be not the same as its ancestor. It would be similarly as less about the venture of attempting to consummate youngsters like that of culminating spouses. Simultaneously, it would be the joint effort between the goal-oriented moms and fathers who consistently accept such a great amount in the meritocracy just as taking the necessary steps so as to fix it in the consideration of their own offspringâ€℠¢s Ivy League possibilities. This would be about indecent sort of string-pulling in order to get kids into the correct nursery schools.â

Saturday, August 22, 2020

The Government’s Taking of Private Property Free Essays

The Constitution of the United States depends basically on the thoughts of the seventeenth Century English scholar John Locke. Locke believed that everybody had common rights, which included life, freedom, and property. Locke expressed â€Å"the extraordinary and boss end, in this way, of men†s joining into provinces, and putting themselves under government, is the protection of property† (Locke/McClaughry 3). We will compose a custom paper test on The Government’s Taking of Private Property or on the other hand any comparable subject just for you Request Now He imagined that if any of these rights were damaged that the violator should make compensation. The Takings Clause in the Fifth Amendment of the Constitution states â€Å"Nor will private property be taken for open use, without just pay. At the point when the administration needs a citizen†s private property to construct streets or structures, they repay the individual with cash generally equivalent to the estimation of that person†s land. The issue of the administration taking or confining a citizen†s land emerges with guideline of private property. John McClaughry characterizes administrative taking â€Å"as a legislative appropriation or pulverization of financial rights by guideline, without the physical occupation which would trigger only pay to the owner† (McClaughry 7). The instance of Lucas v. South Carolina Coastal Council is a case of administrative taking. On account of Lucas v. South Carolina Coastal Council, Lucas purchased two nearby parts on the shore of the Isle of Palms in South Carolina, just to have the land confined by the state, which forestalled his expected utilization of the parcels. Lucas contended that the state†s limitation of the land established taking without just pay. The South Carolina Court of Common Pleas concurred with Lucas and granted him $1,232,387. 50. The Supreme Court of South Carolina couldn't help contradicting the lower court, and saying that the limitations were intended to forestall genuine open mischief so no pay was fundamental, regardless of whether it affected the property†s esteem. Lucas spoke to the Supreme Court of the United States. The Supreme Court of the United States settled on Lucas v. South Carolina Coastal Council in June of 1992. This was four years after the Beachfront Management Act, which denied development on Lucas† parcels, was established in 1988. A change was made to the Act in 1990 that would permit development in unique circumstances. Lucas might speak to the Council and get a grant to expand on his parcels at the hour of the Supreme Court hearings. Lucas contended that the hardship of utilization of his territory from 1988-1990 added up to a taking. The Supreme Court chose to concede certiorari. As per Locke, the government†s reason for existing is to secure and authorize people†s common rights. One of the regular rights, as per Locke, is life. The beach front region of the Isle of Palms that Lucas† parcels were on has been tormented with floods. Equity Blackmun expressed that the land was â€Å"under water† from 1957 until 1963. Moreover, somewhere in the range of 1981 and 1983, â€Å"the Isle of Palms gave twelve crisis orders for sandbagging to ensure property† (Blackmun 2). The territory of South Carolina saw Lucas† property as hazardous. â€Å"Long back it was perceived that all property in this nation is held under the suggested commitment that the owner†s utilization of it will not be harmful to the network, and the Takings Clause didn't change that standard to one that requires pay at whatever point the State declares its capacity to authorize it† (Keystone Bituminous Coal Ass. 491-492). The state†s avoidance of expanding on the site being referred to would not just predictably spare the sea shore from disintegration,! protection and government help cash, yet potentially lives. The Supreme Court decided for this situation that when the sum total of what worth has been taken from property that the proprietor must get pay for it. The inquiry despite everything remains with regards to whether the state made the land become valueless by limiting the structure upon it. Equity Blackmun contended, â€Å"†¦ yet the preliminary court, evidently accepting that ‘less value† and ‘valueless† could be utilized conversely, found the property ‘valueless†Ã¢â‚¬  (Blackmun 5). He proceeds to recommend that the land despite everything held worth since Lucas could appreciate it in different manners, for example, outdoors, swimming, picnicking, or putting a manufactured house on it. The estimation of the property frequently lies entirely subjective. In Colorado, a bit of enactment is being recommended that may turn into a model for different states where property rights are concerned. The Private Property Protection Act would permit â€Å"a landowner to look for remuneration when a guideline removes in excess of 50% of the land†s value† (McClaughry 4). This demonstration trusts † to set up a standard for the most genuine administrative takings and to bear the cost of a strategy for help for a landowner whose rights have been taken† as per (McClaughry 8). In 1997, Senator Hatch (R-UT) presented a bit of enactment called the Citizen†s Access to Justice Act. This Act would â€Å"reduce postponement and cost of suit by obviously characterizing when a property owner†s guarantee is ripe† for arbitration (Annett 2). This bit of enactment would help speed the procedure that is so exorbitant for land owners. The Private Property Rights Implementation Act was passed in October of 1997. This Act assists proprietors with passing their first obstacle by permitting them to have the benefits of their case heard in government court. The Tucker Act Shuffle Relief Act, likewise went in October of 1997, assists residents with passing the second obstacle by â€Å"resolving the jurisdictional inquiry for government courts† (Annett 3). Despite the fact that the Supreme Court†s controlling in Lucas looked encouraging for property rights advocates, it turned out not to be such a major success all things considered. Equity Scalia restricted the utilization of the decision to add up to takings, barring fractional takings. The differentiation among aggregate and halfway takings â€Å"is subjective and conflicting with the motivations behind the Takings Clause† (Butler 3). It is conceivable that one landowner could lose more cash on a bit of property that is just incompletely taken and not get pay for it, when another landowner could be made up for a real estate parcel that isn't completely worth as much as the different owner†s fractional piece. The Supreme Court†s incomplete versus complete taking has had a major effect upon lower court judges in any case. The lower courts are utilizing the choice as a standard by which to pass judgment on administrative property rights cases no matter how you look at it. Numerous litigants are endeavoring to utilize the decision, to battle denied development on their property, where it isn't appropriate. Respondents â€Å"cannot guarantee their territory is valueless essentially in light of the fact that they may have created it in the future† (Butler 5). The other significant piece of the Lucas choice is that â€Å"if the action was recently allowed under pertinent property and disturbance standards, at that point the disallowance of the movement would be an absolute administrative taking that must be compensated† (Butler 6). Equity Blackmun contemplates whether the legislature will be ready to proceed in the event that it must gauge the chance of remuneration when making laws banning genuine perils to society. Be that as it may, in the event that all financially helpful utilizations are not wrecked by the guideline, at that point it doesn't make a difference whether the action was recently allowed. Another instance of administrative property taking that is still on the state level is the extension of the Minneapolis-St. Paul Regional Airport. With the development of the air terminal, expanded air traffic would be flying over the close by Minnesota Valley National Wildlife Refuge. In remuneration for the effects on the natural surroundings, â€Å"†¦ the Fish and Wildlife Service will be paid over $20 million† (Young 1). In any case, the cash is going to originate from expenses and charges put on individuals utilizing the air terminal. At the point when somebody from the private part makes hindrance bureaucratic terrains they should remunerate the administration for the lost grounds. The finish of Lucas v. South Carolina Coastal Council stays to be told. The South Carolina Supreme Court requested the province of South Carolina to buy the two parts being referred to from David Lucas. The state at that point put the two parts available as private locales. Maybe the â€Å"courts should look past the open intrigue talk and analyze the legitimacy of the supposed open purpose† (Butler 7). This is the opposite side of administrative takings. On the off chance that the states are required to pay land owners a huge number of dollars for the land being referred to, would they say they will have the option to maintain the Acts and enactment that got them there? Locke†s characteristic rights appear to strife over the administrative taking of private property. The normal right to life seems to have point of reference over the common right to property as indicated by the government†s activities in managing administrative takings. The administration says that the taking of the land is to the greatest advantage of society, yet privileges of the individu! al are being neglected. At the point when the taking is allowed to the administration, it gives off an impression of being a decent game plan for them. At the point when the administration must compensation for their property, they gauge the upsides and downsides of their choices somewhat more intensely. The Lucas case is loaded with points of reference, great and terrible, for the two sides of the issue of administrative takings. Step by step instructions to refer to The Government’s Taking of Private Property, Essay models

Literary Semiotics Free Essays

Scholarly Semiotics Quite frequently the terms semiotics and semiology are equivalent, so that regularly rather semiotics use semiology and the other way around. Ferdinand de Saussure talks about the sign and the main makes the differentiation among semiotics and semiology. Semiotics is the general hypothesis of signs. We will compose a custom article test on Scholarly Semiotics or then again any comparative point just for you Request Now Semiology study the working of the sign in the social practice. Today stays away from this qualification and semiotics compare with semiology, ie, they are equivalents. GENERAL Semiotics: The sign doesn't exist just in language and writing, however in the film we have and tone as a sign, indications of the society custom (mists as signs, and so on . The sign is a general marvel that exists in all types of human correspondence. With the assistance of the sign declare something. The sign correspondence across fringes fellowship. It is accepted that she sign correspondence has with creatures, plants and so on.. Inside the general phonetic data and correspondence there is the abstract type of correspondence among writer and peruser, between the work and the peruser and so forth.. Semiotics is shared: First Semantics †which centers around the connection among sign and connoted; Second Pragmatics †is a control that centers around the connection between the sign and the peruser; Third Syntax, grammar †is an order that centers around the connection between signs, eg. : Texts as signs books as characters. Semiotics makes a few typologies and recognizes a few kinds of sign frameworks: First PRIRODOJAZICHNI SYSTEMS †characterize them as first-and incorporate normal dialects, ie national dialects (English, French, and so on ).. These are the dialects that are described by a particular practice use. In these frameworks each character is comparable to an article (reference) from the truth. Not all characters are indicated, doesn't generally mean just items that exist, which are in actuality, however there are additionally theoretical, powerful signs that imply something that isn't substantial, yet at the same time exists in our cognizance. Second Artificial sign frameworks †Artificial signs we have in arithmetic, science, etc. These signs are called fake, since they concurred. These incorporate street signs, gesture based communication of the hard of hearing, daze and so forth = Structure is a method of sorting out frameworks. Framework and structure are indistinguishable. Third Secondary, auxiliary sign frameworks †for the most part expand on existing semantic frameworks and doesn't generally allude to things that exist in nature. Writing utilizes common language to decipher artistic, coding, and so on. Every single auxiliary language have pre-need of regular language and together comprise some previously performed sign frameworks, for example, Writing. Optional sign framework eg. Legend †notable, pictorial framework. fourth Mixed HIBRIDIZIRANI SIGNS †eg. Article which joins prirodojazichen framework and an auxiliary sign framework and pictorial framework. th METAJAZICI †Metajazichni frameworks, metalanguage musings when one language portrays another sort of language that is now assembled, eg. Hypothesis of writing has depicted the scholarly language. There are meta-meta dialects, for example, abstract analysis, scholarly approach and so forth.. Semiotics recognized: semantic and nejaz ichni signs, verbal and non-verbal. Semiotics recognizes a few kinds of signs: First - Symbols †images are completely coded signs and they denotativni. These signs have a high level of codification and konvencionalnost. In these signs the connection between the sign and the meant is kodiviciran. Second Sign-picture †in these signs the connection among sign and meant is clearly. Notorious signs konotivni signs. The model has highlights of masterful creation. Third Sign-INDEX †among them the connection among sign and connoted is causal. These signs are commonly semiotic. Model: Where there is smoke there is fire. Among them there is a coherent association that happens because of long haul recognition. Eg. before a seismic tremor happens, creatures are upset, I felt mean. Additionally, preceding such fiascos, we get data, alerts from different planets. This has a place with indeksnoto data. Semiotics varies steady and variable signs. The sign shows the article replaces the subject. Thusly, the sign is seen by the subject imprints. To sign seems must e apostoi need a thing to be supplanted, to imply. Roman Jakobson depicts knizhenosta abstract self-referential tasteful message. Bit of writing simultaneously can be referential (tasteful) and referential. Znakovnosta writing doesn't debilitate WMO intrigue meant. The sign is a mind boggling piece (signifier + implied). With signs serving elements, moving to different substances, which implies that there must be an understanding. In writing, there is a more significant level of style, yet this doesn't bar logic. While eg. in news coverage, a higher level of practicality, however it doesn't really imply that there is no tasteful. There is intertextuality. For instance, the spoof †there parodiziranje scholarly work that as of now exists, we mythema, whose essential content originates from another, recently composed content hipotekst. Indeed, even in the writing have metajazichnost yet overwhelm vtorostepenosta. It ought to be noted and the thought that identifies with the way that there is a contrast among artistic and semantic frameworks. A few frameworks quicker change, others all the more gradually. Frameworks incorporate konvencionalizirani relations suggest a specific consistency lawfulness. Discourse is practice the sort of language use. Semantic framework is gradually evolving. An adjustment in the arrangement of language comes when happening changes in the customary framework. The adjustment in the vocabulary is definitely not a genuine change in the language, however the adjustment in punctuation is a genuine change, in light of the fact that the sentence structure is a reflection of the language, it is the spirit, the embodiment of language. In the twentieth century coming about fast and radical changes in scholarly frameworks, and in language frameworks can not change for a considerable length of time. Abstract framework as an auxiliary Literary Semiotics Systems fluctuate in degree modelativnata power. Frameworks have a high level of first example modelativna force and bid have lower degree modelativna power. Writing isn't so significant (auxiliary) sign framework. In the writing, the language framework is rearranged in an alternate manner, in light of the fact that prirodojazichniot framework is now encoded, he indeed coded in the writing, which implies that the artistic framework is doubly coded. = CODE = Code implies is denied and what isn't. The term â€Å"code† is anything but a simply scholarly term, however originates from egzaknite sciences (arithmetic, software engineering). Code shows us the ideal limit between the prohibited and allowed. Modelativnata power is the capacity to introduce a subject as phonetic or artistic figure. The model is an image of the things demonstrating shows a solitary character. Model of the item is shown in a book can be nearer to the world that shows, yet can be removed. Accordingly, a few characters are viewed as generally progressively sensible poreferencijalni, open to predmetmetot and others are viewed as less referential, hermetic and increasingly kept to the subject. Structure prirodojazichniot sign infers an immediate association between the sign and the referent. A scholarly framework that connection between the sign and the item is circuitous, and even undetectable. When perusing the signs, the entire exhibit of interpretenti that are arranged from other sign with any peruser pbuduva entire scope of various pictures, every peruser think in an unexpected way. For instance, the term â€Å"Company† each poimuva unique: one has a no house, stone house, destroyed house, a wonderful house, a house-snail, little house, white house and so on.. Models, the picture of the subject in the writing speaks to what must exist, what can be missing. Conventional language signs poreferencijalni, in light of the fact that the association between the sign and the issue might be provieri, and in writing it has not. Some artistic characters totally dismiss referentiality and recognize as nereferencijalni or auto-referential. They totally diverted by the connection between the sign and item, life, the world, and so forth.. Be that as it may, after Mallarme abrogating every one of those connections, they are imperceptible, and even signs can not connote something besides themselves. These imprints connote themselves and consequently resolve the topic of the meaning of the sign that consistently implies something that exists outside of them. These characters have their birthplace and their durable custom. Canceled legitimate associations between them, or if nothing else imperceptible from the start. There are artistic characters to a more noteworthy degree referential and with the end goal that auto-referential, that support thinking the sign, aside from the specific data they need to offer something more to the subject, ie the world who speak to; those signs will in general have a more extensive, increasingly widespread data how sorted out life and the world. In the abstract framework is initiated standard sozvuchnost musicality, that actuates the eneral implication semiotichnost, which assumes a significant job in the development of artistic writings that it doesn't make a difference what you state, yet how you state. There are two totally indistinguishable words. Standard semantic signs are recognized by a high level of evenness between the article and the sign by which that item is stamped. These signs are more dilig ently clear since they twist the picture of a world that is set apart with this sign; at the same time in view of the asymmetry between the sign and the article, ie the world; not consider anything explicitly. Artistic framework is: First optional, auxiliary; Second twofold coded; Third notorious, pleasant, with a high degree modelativnost; fourth connection between the article and the sign is hilter kilter; fifth shows intrigue I

Friday, August 21, 2020

Additive Manufacturing; Stereolithography in Dentistry

Added substance Manufacturing; Stereolithography in Dentistry Presentation: Advanced insurgency due to PCs has made the already manual assignments a lot simpler, quicker and increasingly solid at a diminished expense. Such changes are constantly invited in dentistry, particularly from materials and assembling viewpoint. The computerized unrest as dental CADâ€CAM occurred numerous years prior, since than many adjusted frameworks have showed up available with extraordinary quickness. It is normal that another advanced dental upset will assume control over dentistry as layered manufacture procedures, when they can create top notch dental prostheses. This circumstance has additionally presented incredible test for the material researchers as materials that are appropriate for long haul use in dentistry and oral condition. This can possibly take dental materials inquire about a very surprising way. Added substance producing: Dentistry is the most fit field for added substance fabricating, as it is connected with fast creation of altered units made to fit the patient with high level of exactness and precision. On a fundamental level it makes a progression of cross-sectional cuts from a 3D PC document which are then printed one on the other to make the 3D object with no material being squandered. Added substance producing innovations incorporates numerous and Stereolithography (SLA) is one of them. Stereolithography (SLA) Stereolithography (SLA) is the most generally utilized fast prototyping innovation. The term â€Å"Stereolithography† was first presented in 1986 by Charles W. Structure, who characterized it as a technique for making strong items by progressively printing meager layers of a bright treatable material, one on the other. Materials and Required time: Various materials that the business utilizes have expanded enormously and present day machines can use a wide exhibit of photograph reparable polymers. Timing relies upon the size and number of items being made, the laser may pause for a moment or two for each layer (an average run 6 to 12 h). One would now be able to try and print 50 to 80 dental crown units in a short time with excellent mode. Applications in dentistry: Dental applications are entirely appropriate for handling by methods for SLA because of their mind boggling geometries, low volume and solid individualization. Most basic are models created from intraoral or impression filters. In any case, prominence is picking up for orthodontics and removable prosthodontics. 1. Creation of anatomical models: SLA models are favored as a result of higher quality, higher temperature opposition, lower dampness ingestion, and lower shrinkage. They can be disinfected for careful use, and writing has indicated unrivaled precision (Barker et al., 1994, Choi et al., 2002, Cunningham et al., 2005). Table-1 sums up essential qualities of the three most normal sorts of 3-D models utilized in the United States. SLA clinical models are utilized as a guide to determination, preoperative arranging and embed structure and assembling. Specialists use models to help plan medical procedures however prosthetists and technologists likewise use models as a guide to the structure and assembling of custom-fitting inserts. These models are especially exceptionally valuable for therapeutic recovery of oral malignant growth patients. Clinical models are every now and again used to help in the development of Cranioplasty plates. The models are successful devices to encourage quiet t raining and as a showing help for understudies and junior partners. 2. Production of crowns and scaffolds, pitch models: Its utilization is step by step being reached out to incorporate the assembling of transitory crowns and extensions and gum working models for misfortune wax throwing. 3. Creation of removable halfway dental replacement systems: The removable incomplete dental replacement structures is made utilizing quick prototyping, SLA method. It was created by 3D Systems of Valencia, CA, USA in 1986. 4. Creation of exclusively redid advanced aligner models for orthodontic use: Whole plate of separately modified aligner models which fill in as very exact base-form devices whereupon the unmistakable aligners are then thermoformed, can be delivered by this added substance strategy. 5. Assembling of platforms for bioengineering and nerve control channels: Scaffolds for bioengineering and nerve direct courses for fringe nerve recovery are the more up to date utilizations of a comparative procedure for example microstereolithography ( µ SLA). Future headways: With the upgrades in the speed, unwavering quality, and exactness of the equipment, added substance assembling will genuinely rival customary assembling in making end-use items. Numerous conceivable biomedical building applications may be accessible in the coming years. End: It will even now be numerous years prior to the machines will have the option to deliver work of a quality that can be accomplished by the best dental technologists on the planet. For the dental materials researcher these advancements will hurl a totally different method of materials preparing and with it the chance to utilize an entirely different scope of materials. Table-1 Basic qualities of 3 D models (Choi et al., 2002) References and further perusing: Barker, T.M, Earwaker, W.J.S, Lisle D.A. (1994) Accuracy of stereolithographic models for human anatomy.Australas Radiol,38(106). Berman, B. (2012) 3-D printing: The new mechanical revolution.Business horizons,55(2), 155-162. Cassetta, M., Giansanti, M., Di Mambro, A., Stefanelli, L. V. (2013) Accuracy of Positioning of Implants Inserted Using a Mucosa-Supported Stereolithographic Surgical Guide in the Edentulous Maxilla and Mandible.The International diary of oral maxillofacial implants,29(5), 1071-1078. Choi, J.Y., Choi, J.H., Kim N.K. (2002) Analysis of blunders in clinical fast prototyping models.Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg, 31(23). doi: 10.1054/ijom.2000.0135. Cunningham, L., Madsen, M., Peterson, G. (2005) Stereolithographic demonstrating innovation applied to tumor resection.J Oral Maxillofac Surg, 63, 873â€878. Gauvin, R., Chen, Y. C., Lee, J. W., Soman, P., Zorlutuna, P., Nichol, J. W., Khademhosseini, A. (2012) Microfabrication of complex permeable tissue designing platforms utilizing 3D projection stereolithography.Biomaterials, 33(15), 3824-3834. Mehra, P., Miner, J., D’Innocenzo, R., Nadershah, M. (2011) Use of 3-D stereolithographic models in oral and maxillofacial surgery.Journal of maxillofacial and oral surgery,10(1), 6-13. Melchels, F. P., Feijen, J., Grijpma, D. W. (2010) A survey on stereolithography and its applications in biomedical engineering.Biomaterials, 31(24), 6121-6130. Morris, L., Sokoya, M., Cunningham, L., Gal, T. J. (2013) Utility of stereolithographic models in osteocutaneous free fold reproduction of the head and neck.Craniomaxillofacial injury reconstruction,6(2), 87. Patel, M., Al-Momani, Z., Hodson, N., Nixon, P., Mitchell, D. (2013) Computerized tomography, stereolithography and dental embeds in the recovery of oral malignant growth patients.Dental update,40(7), 564-6. Tasaki, S., Kirihara, S., Soumura, T. (2011, November) Fabrication of Ceramic Dental Crowns by utilizing Stereolithography and Powder Sintering Process. In Ceramic Engineering and Science Proceedings (Vol. 32(8), 141-146). American Ceramic Society, Inc., 735 Ceramic Place Westerville OH 43081 United States. Van Noort, R. (2012) The eventual fate of dental gadgets is digital.Dental Materials, 28(1), 3-12.

Read Psychology Persuasion Essay Topics to Succeed in Your Academic Studies

Read Psychology Persuasion Essay Topics to Succeed in Your Academic StudiesTo write a persuasive essay, you need to be familiar with the concepts of Psychology persuasion essay topics. This is the foundation of any successful persuasive essay.If you have been thinking about writing a persuasive essay you should be familiar with the principles of Persuasion. The four major principles of persuasion are the Substantive, the Event, the Circumstance and the Personal Attributes. The content of your persuasive essay depends on what is required in order to meet the requirements of each of these four components. The purpose of your essay will also depend on the area of study that you have chosen to do.When writing a persuasive essay, you need to keep in mind the differences between critical and non-critical thinking. In order to build your argument you must be aware of your audience's background, ideas and attitudes. You can use your skills of persuasion and understanding of your audience to get your point across.For more information on how to use a persuasive essay for your academic needs the following websites may be of interest:When looking for online essays on Psychology persuasion essay topics you will find that there are many diverse styles and different backgrounds. These websites will help you to review and use these different styles so that you can write your essay effectively.Another important component to understand is the emotions and interpretation. These concepts are used to make a persuasive argument based on emotion. Emotions are specific and personal, so you must know how to use them in order to deliver the message in the most persuasive way possible.Writing an essay on persuasion has become more important as people turn away from using their mind to think critically. Today more than ever it is important to understand the importance of the mind. By using the study of psychological science you can get a better understanding of the situation.To learn more about essay topics on Psychology persuasion and how to be successful in the areas of this subject, visit the website below. Find out more by registering today. You will be provided with useful information that will help you succeed in your studies.

Friday, July 3, 2020

El Salon Mexico Copland - Free Essay Example

El Salon Mexico by Aaron Copland: A Study and Comparison of the Orchestral Score and Two Transcriptions for Band D. M. A. Document Presented in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Musical Arts in the Graduate School of The Ohio State University By Erika Kirsten Svanoe, M. M. Graduate Program in Music The Ohio State University 2009 DMA Document Committee: Russel Mikkelson, Advisor Hilary Apfelstadt Richard Blatti Daryl Kinney Copyright by Erika Kirsten Svanoe 2009 Abstract Aaron Copland completed the orchestral score to El Salon Mexico in 1936 marking a turning point in his career. The piece received more performances in the year following its completion than any of his previous orchestral works. It was well received by both critics and audiences due to his focus on melody and shift in thinking towards using the â€Å"simplest possible means† to make the music more accessible to the listener. Mark Hindsley completed a band arrangement of El Sa lon Mexico in 1966 that included numerous changes to the meter and rhythmic notation found in Copland’s orchestral score. The author conducted a comparative analysis of Copland’s published orchestral score, the El Salon Mexico manuscript materials, Bernstein’s arrangements for piano, and Hindsley’s transcription for band. This investigation sought to determine why Hindsley chose to include metric alterations that differ from the orchestral score, and how he decided what meters would be appropriate. The study of Copland’s manuscript materials of El Salon Mexico revealed that Copland simplified the meter and rhythmic notation after the composition was complete. These rhythmic alterations were completed during the orchestration process in an effort to make the piece more performable. Much of Copland’s original conception of rhythmic notation, that appears in his manuscript sketches, also appear in Bernstein’s piano arrangements. In addition, many of the alterations Hindsley utilized were similar to the ii metric and rhythmic notation in Bernstein’s arrangements. In some sections of the music, Bernstein’s and Hindsley’s notation more closely match Copland’s original conception of rhythmic notation than the orchestral score. The comparative analysis also revealed Hindsley’s scoring techniques, including heavy doubling, unnecessary changing of wind instrument timbres and numerous changes to meter and beaming. The author created a new arrangement for band that restores all the orchestral meters and modernizes the instrumentation and orchestration. The intent was to provide today’s conductors the option of using a transcription more closely related to the published orchestral score. iii Dedication Dedicated to my husband and closest friend Erik Evensen. v Acknowledgements I would like to thank my teachers at the Ohio State University for their help and guidance in compl eting this project, including my committee members Hilary Apfelstadt, Daryl Kinney, Richard Blatti, and especially my advisor Russel Mikkelson who proposed the idea for project and guided the work throughout the process. I would also like to thank him and the Ohio State University Wind Symphony for their preparation of my arrangement that resulted in a wonderful performance. Thank you to Philip McCarthy from Boosey Hawkes, and James Kendrick and Jessica Rauch from the Aaron Copland Fund for Music for assisting with the various permissions needed to complete this project. I would also like to thank the librarians at the Library of Congress for their assistance, particularly Loras Schissel for mailing a copy of a necessary manuscript. Finally, I’d like to thank my family for all of their support the past three years. I need to give a special thank you to my husband Erik Evensen, who has been my greatest supporter. v Vita January 26, 1976. Born, Janesville, WI, USA 1999.. B. M. E. University of Wisconsin – Eau Claire 1999-2001.. Music Educator, Mukwonago, WI 2001-2003.. Graduate Assistant, Oklahoma State University 2003.. M. M. Wind Conducting, Oklahoma State University 2003-2006.. Lecturer, University of New Hampshire 2006-2009.. Doctoral Conducting Associate, Ohio State University 2009-present . Director of Bands, Bemidji State University Field of Study Major Field: Music vi Table of Contents Abstract . ii Dedication iv Acknowledgements v Vita . vi List of Figures.. viii List of Photos .. xii List of Tables xiii Chapter 1: Introduction and Procedures .. 1 Chapter 2: El Salon Mexico for Orchestra .. 7 Chapter 3: The Mark Hindsley Arrangement for Band 45 Chapter 4: The Erika Svanoe Arrangement for Band. 82 Chapter 5: Conclusions and Suggestions for further Research .. 92 Bibliography. 100 Appendix A: Copland’s â€Å"Suggested revisions on band arrangement† 103 Appendix B: El Salon Mexico for Band arranged by Erika Svano e. 05 vii List of Figures Figure 2. 1: Folksong material used in El Salon Mexico 23 Figure 2. 2: Copland, El Salon Mexico, melodic material, mm. 8-13 .. 23 Figure 2. 3: Copland, El Salon Mexico, mm. 23-26, Trumpet . 24 Figure 2. 4: Copland, El Salon Mexico, mm. 39-44, Bassoon 1 . 24 Figure 2. 5: Copland, El Salon Mexico, mm. 61-64, Violin 1, 2, Viola (compressed).. 25 Figure 2. 6: Copland, El Salon Mexico, mm. 6-81, Violin 1 25 Figure 2. 7: Copland, El Salon Mexico, mm. 106-110, Clarinet 1 .. 26 Figure 2. 8: Copland, El Salon Mexico, mm. 135-139, Violin 1. 26 Figure 2. 9: Copland, El Salon Mexico, mm. 185-190, Clarinet 1 . 27 Figure 2. 10: Copland, El Salon Mexico, mm. 256-260, English Horn 27 Figure 2. 11: Copland, El Salon Mexico, mm. 211-214, Clarinet 1 28 Figure 2. 2: Copland, ARCO 28-A (Piano Sketch), Rhythmic notation, mm. 1-3. 32 Figure 2. 13: Copland/Bernstein, El Salon Mexico for Two Pianos, Rhythmic notation, mm. 1-3 .. 32 Figure 2. 14: Copland, El Salon Mexico, Rhythmic notation, mm. 1-5 32 Figure 2. 15: Copland, El Salon Mexico, mm. 124-128, Violin 1.. 33 Figure 2. 16: Copland, ARCO 28-A (Piano Sketch), Corresponding music to Figure 2. 5 33 viii Figure 2. 17: Copland, El Salon Mexico, mm. 160-168 (compressed) 34 Figure 2. 18: Copland, ARCO 28-A (Piano Sketch), Corresponding music to Figure 2. 17 34 Figure 2. 19: Copland, El Salon Mexico, mm. 130-135, Strings.. 35 Figure 2. 0: Example of revised rhythmic notation in Symphonic Ode. 37 Figure 3. 1: Hindsley Orchestration Chart 51 Figure 3. 2: Copland/Hindsley, El Salon Mexico for Band, mm. 40-44. Bassoons, Contrabassoon, Alto and Tenor Saxophones . 53 Figure 3. 3: Copland, El Salon Mexico, mm. 247-251, Strings 54 Figure 3. 4: Copland/Hindsley, El Salon Mexico for Band, mm. 247-251, Clarinets 54 Figure 3. 5: Copland, El Salon Mexico, mm. 1-64, Strings 55 Figure 3. 6: Copland/Hindsley, El Salon Mexico for Band, mm. 61-64, Clarinets, Cornets 55 Figure 3. 7: Copland, El Salon Mexico, mm. 73-80, S trings 56 Figure 3. 8: Copland/Hindsley, El Salon Mexico for Band, mm. 73-80, Flutes, Clarinets, Cornets 6 Figure 3. 9: Copland, El Salon Mexico, mm. 1-4, Trumpets 57 Figure 3. 10: Copland/Hindsley, El Salon Mexico for Band, mm. 1-4, Cornets, Trumpets 57 Figure 3. 11: Copland, El Salon Mexico, mm. 20-25, Bass Clarinet, Bassoons, Trombone 1 .. 59 ix Figure 3. 12: Copland/Hindsley, El Salon Mexico for Band, mm. 0-25, Bassoons, Saxophones 59 Figure 3. 13: Copland, El Salon Mexico, mm. 221-226 . 61 Figure 3. 14: Copland/Hindsley, El Salon Mexico for Band, mm. 221-226 .. 62 Figure 3. 15: Copland/Hindsley, El Salon Mexico for Band, 1st Version Manuscript (ARCO 28-D) mm. 73-80 .. 63 Figure 3. 16: Copland, El Salon Mexico, mm. 3-80 . 65 Figure 3. 17: Copland/Hindsley, El Salon Mexico for Band, mm. 73-80 .. 66 Figure 3. 18: Copland, El Salon Mexico, mm. 372-375, Viola 69 Figure 3. 19: Copland/Hindsley, El Salon Mexico for Band, mm. 373-377, Clarinet 2, 3 .. 69 Figure 3. 20: Copland, El S alon Mexico, mm. 377-379, Violin 2, Viola .. 70 Figure 3. 1: Copland/Hindsley, El Salon Mexico for Band, mm. 380-382, Clarinet 2, 3 .. 70 Figure 3. 22: Copland, El Salon Mexico, mm. 14-15, Trumpets. 71 Figure 3. 23: Copland/Hindsley, El Salon Mexico for Band, mm. 14-15, Cornets, Trumpets 71 Figure 3. 24: Copland, El Salon Mexico, mm. 316-319, Trumpet 1, 2. 72 Figure 3. 5: Copland/Hindsley, El Salon Mexico for Band, mm. 316-319, Trumpet 1.. 72 Figure 3. 26: Copland, El Salon Mexico, mm. 324-326, Horns .. 73 Figure 3. 27: Copland/Hindsley, El Salon Mexico for Band, mm. 324-326, Horns 73 Figure 3. 28: Copland, El Salon Mexico, mm. 252-256, Violins .. 75 x Figure 3. 29: Copland/Hindsley, El Salon Mexico for Band, mm. 252-256, Clarinets 1, 2. 75 Figure 3. 30: Copland, El Salon Mexico, mm. 57-258, Viola 76 Figure 3. 31: Copland/Hindsley, El Salon Mexico for Band, mm. 257-258, Clarinet 1 76 Figure 3. 32: Copland, El Salon Mexico, mm. 10, melodic material. 77 Figure 3. 33: Copland/Hindsley , El Salon Mexico for Band, m. 10, melodic material . 77 Figure 3. 34: Comparison of rhythmic notation for music corresponding with orchestral mm. 156-172 in the Piano Sketch (ARCO 28-A), Bernstein arrangement for solo piano, and Hindsley’s arrangement for band 8 Figure 3. 35: Copland, El Salon Mexico, mm. 59, Bassoon 80 Figure 3. 36: Copland/Hindsley, El Salon Mexico for Band, m. 59, Bassoon .. 80 Figure 3. 37: Copland, El Salon Mexico, m. 313, Trumpet 1 in C.. 80 Figure 3. 38: Copland/Hindsley, El Salon Mexico for Band, m. 313, Trumpet (displayed in concert pitch) 80 Figure 3. 39: Copland, El Salon Mexico, mm. 60-161, melodic material in Trombone 1, 2, Violin 1, Viola .. 81 Figure 3. 40: Copland/Hindsley, El Salon Mexico for Band, mm. 160-161, melodic material in Horn 2, 4, Trombone 1, 2 81 xi List of Photos Photo 2. 1: ARCO 28. 1, Music corresponding to published orchestral score m. 321 40 Photo 2. 2: ARCO 28-A, Music corresponding to published orchestral score m. 321.. 41 Photo 2. 3: ARCO 28, Music corresponding to published orchestral score m. 378 2 Photo 2. 4: ARCO 28a copy 2, mm. 24-25, Bass Clarinet, Bassoons, Trumpet in C, Trombone .. 43 Photo 2. 5: ARCO 28-A, Music corresponding to published orchestral score mm. 24-25 . 44 xii List of Tables Table 2. 1: Summary of published scores and manuscripts .. 31 Table 3. 1: Comparison of Instrumentation between Copland Orchestral Score and Hindsley Band Score. 49 Table 4. 1: Comparison of Instrumentation between Copland Orchestral Score, Hindsley Band Score, and Svanoe Band Score. 85 xiii Chapter 1: Introduction and Procedures Background Transcriptions and arrangements of works from other mediums hold an important place in the literature of the wind band. For much of the band’s history, a large part of the available literature included orchestral transcriptions. While there has been an enormous increase in the percentage of original compositions for band in the past several decades, qual ity transcriptions of significant works from other mediums continue to add depth and variety to the literature as a whole. When a conductor is faced with the task of performing an arrangement or transcription, it is important to refer to the original version during score study and preparation. If the arranger of the new version has made changes that may affect the performance of the piece, it is vital to know what these alterations are, and if they are appropriate. In some cases, changes in an arrangement may not accurately reflect the original composer’s intentions, while other changes are appropriate due to the difference in medium. One such band transcription that deserves a thorough comparative analysis and evaluation is Mark Hindsley’s arrangement of Aaron Copland’s El Salon Mexico. While it is considered to be one of Copland’s lighter orchestral works, it is an important piece because of its place in his compositional output as a whole. It was one of the first works that represented a conscious shift in Copland’s compositional style towards using what he 1 called the â€Å"simplest possible terms. † Copland’s perception that the majority of concert audiences were apathetic towards any music but the established classics was responsible for this shift in thinking. As the audience for new music continued to decrease, Copland experimented with music he thought would appeal to a wider audience. 1 El Salon Mexico was the first successful piece in this new style and helped Copland gain widespread popularity. Hindsley’s band arrangement is significant not only because of Copland’s status as one of America’s premiere composers, but because of its widespread use by bands. It has appeared on several state high school contest lists including Texas, Florida, Arkansas, and Virginia and was recorded by both the University of Illinois and the Cincinnati Conservatory. 3 It also appears regularly on collegiate band programs. 4 However, Hindsley made several editorial decisions, particularly regarding meter, which differ significantly from the score of the orchestral work. One purpose of this study is to compare Aaron Copland’s El Salon Mexico for orchestra with Mark Hindsley’s transcription for band and to evaluate the editorial changes made in the band version. Finally, a new arrangement of El Salon Mexico for band was created in which all of Copland’s orchestral meters were restored. Aaron Copland Aaron Copland (1900-1990) is one of the most significant American composers of the 20th century. He won the Pulitzer Prize and the New York Music Critics’ Circle 1 2 Copland, â€Å"Composer from Brooklyn,† xxvi. Berger, Aaron Copland, 30. Shattingermusic. com 4 CBDNA Report 2 Award for Appalachian Spring and his film scores earned him four Academy Award nominations and one win for The Heiress in 1949. He was elected to the American Academy of Arts and Letters in 1954, received the Academy’s Gold Medal in 1956, and served as the Academy’s president in 1971. Other awards included a MacDowell Medal in 1961, a Presidential Medal of Freedom in 1964, a Kennedy Center Honor in 1979, a Medal of the Arts in 1986, and a Congressional Gold Medal in 1986, as well as several honorary doctorates. While Copland’s music has been acknowledged by prestigious awards, it is also recognized by much of the American populous because of its infiltration into popular culture. His music has been used to promote the Olympics, the armed forces and the United States beef industry, because â€Å"when it comes to music that summons up images of America in the minds of American listeners, Copland is unique†¦ in each case the promoters have wanted to tap into deep-seated feelings that, somehow, this music evokes like almost nothing else. 6 The youngest of five children, Aaron Copland was born on November 14, 1900 in Brooklyn, New York to his parents Harris and Sarah Copland. Throughout his youth Copland studied piano, theory, and composition with various teachers and supplemented his education by attending recitals and concerts. In 1921 he traveled to Paris where he studied composition with Nadia Boulanger, his most influential teacher. While studying with Boulanger Copland produced his first orchestral score, Grohg, which he completed upon his return to the United States in 1924. In addition, Boulanger arranged for two 6 Howard Pollack. Copland, Aaron. In Grove Music Online. Burr, â€Å"Copland, the West and American Identity,† 22. 3 performances of Copland’s organ concerto to be performed by both the New York and Boston Symphony Orchestras with herself as soloist. The performance of the Organ Symphony under the baton of Sergey Koussevitzky initiated an important relationship for Copland. Koussevitzky became one of Copland’s greatest collaborators and champions. 7 Upon Coplandâ₠¬â„¢s return the United States, he felt the need to compose modern music that was identifiably American. He began to incorporate jazz into his symphonic works such as Music for Theatre (1925) and the Piano Concerto (1926). 8 While Copland had the support of Koussevitzky and several other musicians, critics, and artists, much of the press regarded his music with skepticism. His Piano Concerto, performed by the Boston Symphony Orchestra with himself as pianist, had a particularly unfavorable reception. 9 Olin Downs of the New York Times wrote â€Å"It progresses by fits and starts†¦confirming [the listener’s] suspicions that Mr. Copland needs a firmer hold of principles of musical structure†¦ Here is a young man who can surely not remain content with the praise of partisans or knowledge of his own artistic shortcomings. †10 Public audiences had similar reactions. At a performance of the Piano Concerto in Mexico there were so many hisses from the audience during the performance that Copland looked to the conductor, Carlos Chavez, for a sign of whether to continue the performance. 11 Copland’s compositional activity decreased in the late 1920s. He entered a selfreflective period in which he considered his own compositional path, as well as the path of American music. In his 1939 essay â€Å"Composer from Brooklyn† he stated: 7 8 Howard Pollack. Copland, Aaron. In Grove Music Online. Crist, Music for the Common Man, 42. 9 Pollack, â€Å"Copland, Aaron. In Grove Music Online. 10 Berger, Aaron Copland, 24. 11 Copland and Perlis, Copland, 216. 4 I began to feel an increasing dissatisfaction with the relations of the music-loving public and the living composer. The old â€Å"special† public of the modern-music concerts had fallen away, and the conventional concert public continued apathetic of indifferent to anything but the established classics. It seemed to me that we composers were in danger of working in a vacuum. Moreover, an entirely new public for music had grown up around the radio and phonograph. It made no sense to ignore them and to continue writing as if they did not exist. I felt that it was worth the effort to see if I couldn’t say what I had to say in the simplest possible terms. 12 It was El Salon Mexico that â€Å"developed and heralded his new style. 13 It embodied Copland’s new tendency toward â€Å"imposed simplicity. †14 For the untrained listener the use of folksongs and programmatic title helped bridge the gap from absolute music. It was accessible for audiences who did not have musical training or the ability to perceive formal structures. The piece was immediately popular receiving more performances than any of his other orchestral works and brought Copland’s new compositional style to the attention of the public. El Salon Mexico established Copland as a â€Å"successful† composer and was directly responsible for his publishing contract with Boosey Hawkes. Impressive honors would soon follow, including a commission from the Columbia Broadcasting System for Music for Radio (1937), election to the National Institue of Arts and Letters in 1942, and the 1945 Pulitzer Prize in music for Appalachian Spring. 15 In the decade that followed 1935, Copland did not entirely abandon writing in his more abstract style, though most of his efforts had some element of functionality, such as An Outdoor Overture (1939), composed for students, or included external matter that 12 13 Copland â€Å"Composer from Brooklyn,† xxvi. Berger, Aaron Copland, 30. 4 Copland, â€Å"Composer from Brooklyn†, xxvi. 15 Berger, Aaron Copland, 30-31. 5 gave the piece an element of being programmatic, such as Appalachian Spring (1944). Many of Copland’s most popular and well-known works are from this time span, including Fanfare for the Common Man (1942) and Rodeo (1942). Pieces such as his Piano Sonata (1941) and Sonat a for Violin and Piano (1943) are representative of his more abstract style during this time period. However, it was not until he composed his Third Symphony (1946) that he composed for the orchestra without programmatic elements. 6 Copland commented on what was perceived as an abandonment of his more complex music in his 1967 addition to â€Å"Composer from Brooklyn. † The assertion that I wished â€Å"to see if I couldn’t say what I had to say in the simplest possible terms† and the mention of â€Å"an imposed simplicity† were taken to mean that I had renounced my more complex and â€Å"difficult† music†¦ these remarks of mine emphasized a point of view which, although appropriate at the time of writing†¦seems to me to constitute an oversimplification of my aims and intentions, especially when applied to a consideration of my subsequent work and of my work as a whole. 7 While the ten years that followed El Salon Mexico seemed to focus o n Copland’s new accessible style, he later felt that there was no disparity between his two compositional styles, the simple and the complex. Rather, he adapted his technique to the materials with which he chose to work. [There is] a continuing discussion concerning the apparent dichotomy between my â€Å"serious† and my â€Å"popular† works. I can only say that those commentators who would like to split me down the middle into two because I take into account with each new piece the purpose for which it is intended and the nature of the musical materials with which I begin to work. Musical ideas engender pieces, and the ideas by their character dictate the nature of the composition to be written. 18 16 17 Berger, Aaron Copland, 32. Copland, â€Å"Composer from Brooklyn,† xxvi-xxvii. 18 Ibid. , xxxii. 6 By the late 1940s Copland was widely regarded as the leading American composer of his time. While he had lived in Manhattan for many years, he moved to Ossining, New York in 1952. Through the 1950s he continued to lecture, teach and write and in 1958 began a 20-year international conducting career, presenting both this own works and the music of over 80 other composers. In 1961 Copland moved into a larger home located near Peekskill, New York where he lived until his death. He did not compose much after 1972 and began to suffer short-term memory lapses in the mid1970s. After being diagnosed with Alzheimer’s he was under medical supervision by the mid-1980s. He died of respiratory failure on December 2, 1990. 19 El Salon Mexico During a visit to Mexico in the autumn of 1932, Copland conceived of writing a piece based on Mexican themes. From the beginning, he connected the piece with a popular dance hall in Mexico City called Salon Mexico. He realized he did not want to attempt to reflect the profound, historical side of Mexico since he felt he did not truly know the country. Instead he wanted to reflect this tourist â⠂¬Å"hot spot† where he also felt a close connection with the Mexican people. While the work references several Mexican folk songs, Copland transforms the melodies into his own musical language. He said â€Å"It wasn’t the music that I heard, but the spirit that I felt there, which attracted me. Something of that spirit is what I hope to have put into my music. The work was completed in 1936 and premiered by Carlos Chavez and the Orquesta Sinfonica de Mexico the summer of the following year. 19 Pollack, â€Å"Copland, Aaron. † In Grove Music Online. 7 El Salon Mexico is a significant work in Copland’s compositional output for several reasons. First, this piece came at a time when Copland was beginning a shift in thinking toward trying to say things in the â€Å"simplest possible terms. † The works that followed the Symphonic Ode (1929), the composition that marks the culmination of Copland’s austere writing up to that point, gradually evolved towards a generally more accessible aesthetic. Copland’s focus on melody and the use of Mexican folksongs in El Salon Mexico were important elements that helped Copland write in a more accessible style, as well as attain wider audience appeal of his music. Second, this was Copland’s first work to utilize borrowed folk tunes, a tool he would use throughout his career. While some of the material he borrowed is a direct quotation, his treatment of folksongs more often employs a transformation of the materials, making them a part of Copland’s compositional language, deftly retaining the spirit and character of the tunes. Copland’s motive for turning to these melodies was â€Å"an aspect of his campaign to achieve a simple style and a content that would engage the interest of a wider audience. †20 Third, due to greater interest in his music, Copland became enormously successful. El Salon Mexico introduced the composer to a larger audience and ear ned him popular acclaim. Compared to Statements and the Short Symphony, which received hardly any performances, by 1938 El Salon Mexico had been performed by 21 orchestras. Also, it was at the 1938 European premier of this work that Copland met Benjamin Britten, who in turn introduced Copland to his publisher Boosey Hawkes. El Salon 20 Berger, Aaron Copland, 57. 8 Mexico, along with Music for Radio, were the first works to be published by the London firm. El Salon Mexico clearly marks a compositional turning point for Copland in several ways. His conscious efforts to appeal to a wider audience, use of folksong materials, and the success that followed the premiere all contribute to the fact that this work was an important milestone in Copland’s compositional output. Several arrangements of the piece were created. Leonard Bernstein arranged both the solo piano and two piano versions in 1941 and 1943 respectively. A truncated version titled â€Å"Fantasia Mexicana† dated 1952 was adapted and orchestrated by Johnny Green for the MGM motion picture Fiesta. Arturo Toscanini wrote an unpublished arrangement for piano, possibly for his own study of the orchestral score. 21 Mark Hindsley completed his arrangement for concert band in 1966. While Copland created several band arrangements of his own works, as well as composing Emblems (1964) for band, he did not create a band version of El Salon Mexico. His first transcription for band was An Outdoor Overture (1938), originally composed for high school orchestra. The band transcription was completed at the request of Edwin Franko Goldman and was premiered by the Goldman Band in 1942. The other transcriptions Copland completed for band include Variations on a Shaker Melody (1956), Preamble for a Solemn Occasion (1949), Inaugural Fanfare (1977), and Red Pony Suite (1948). 22 Since the Toscanini is an unpublished reduction of the published orchestral score and the Green is a truncated version of the o rchestral score, these two versions did not factor into this study. 2 Briskey, â€Å"The Symphonic Band Repertoire of Aaron Copland,† 38-42. 9 21 Mark Hindsley (1905-1999) created the band arrangement of El Salon Mexico in 1966. Hindlsey was the Director of Bands at the University of Illinois from 1948 until he retired in 1970. He completed dozens of arrangements for band, most of which are selfpublished and still available from his son, Roger Hindsley, who currently distributes his music. 23 The only band arrangement of Hindsley’s that is not currently self-published is El Salon Mexico, published by Boosey Hawkes. According to a 1982 survey by Earle Gregory, it was (and likely still is) one of Hindsley’s most often played transcriptions. The distribution capabilities of Boosey Hawkes certainly contribute to its availability and popularity. 24 Review of Related Research The majority of literature regarding El Salon Mexico relates to the background story of the composition or how the work fits into Copland’s compositional output as a whole. There is no in-depth analysis of the work to date. This lack of analytical research is also noted by Leo Philip Fishman in his recent dissertation â€Å"Theoretical Issues and Presumptions in the Early Music of Aaron Copland† (2007). Fishman states that â€Å"there has been a dearth of useful research concentrating on theoretical aspects of his music while there has been a great deal of work on contextualizing Copland as a way to explain his oeuvre. 25 Fishman’s study concentrates on four early works of Copland’s, none of which is El Salon Mexico. www. hindsleytranscriptions. com Gregory, â€Å"Mark H. Hindsley: The Illinois Years,† 162-3. 5 Fishman, â€Å"Theoretical Issues and Presumptions in the Music of Aaron Copland,† vi. 10 24 23 The most relevant literature that addresses questions posed by this study is either limited in scope or tangential to th e topic. Only two limited analyses of the orchestral El Salon Mexico were discovered. No literature could be found regarding Hindsley’s band transcription. Topics that were considered tangential but supportive to the study include studies of the piano arrangements of El Salon Mexico by Leonard Bernstein, Mark Hindsley’s other arrangements for band, and Copland’s use of metric and rhythmic notation in other works. The most relevant literature within these topics is summarized here. The best information that could be considered an analysis of El Salon Mexico is by Gerald Abraham. When Boosey Hawkes published the miniature score of El Salon, it was traditional for analytical notes to be included. The four-page insert gives a brief summary of the story of the Mexican dance hall and Copland’s inspiration for writing the piece. Most of the information outlines Copland’s use and alteration of Mexican folksongs and where they appear in various guises t hroughout the piece. Abraham outlines his interpretation of the form, which is debatable but certainly workable version of the formal structure. The notes are of high quality and give an excellent summary of the work, but are very limited in scope. 26 â€Å"A Comparison and Analysis of Aaron Coplands El Salon Mexico for Orchestra, Piano Solo, and Two Piano Four Hands† by Richard Glazier gives a brief analysis of the orchestral version and documents some of the differences between it and the piano arrangements by Leonard Bernstein. Most of the analysis is drawn from Gerald Abraham’s notes published in the miniature score, though Glazier additionally illustrates 26 Abraham, â€Å"Aaron Copland: El Salon Mexico. † 11 Copland’s use of polyrhythm and polytonality. In comparing the rhythmic notation of the orchestral and piano versions and reading Copland’s essay â€Å"On the notation of rhythm,† Glazier recognizes that Copland simplified th e meter in the orchestral version. Some of the other rhythmic notation that appears in the piano versions he credits to Bernstein, but in some cases this notation originally appears in Copland’s hand in the manuscript materials. It is clear that Copland’s manuscripts of El Salon Mexico were not examined as part of this study. Glazier’s purpose is to document some of the differences in the piano versions and defend them as artistic additions to piano literature. 27 Research regarding Copland’s practice of rewriting rhythmic notation in his orchestral works includes â€Å"The Compositional History of Aaron Copland’s Symphonic Ode† by Elizabeth Bergman Crist. She constructs the history of the composition through existing manuscript materials and correspondence. Crist demonstrates the process and circumstances that led to Copland’s rebarring of the Symphonic Ode, and substantiates that Koussevitzky was largely responsible for initia ting these changes. The article also provides evidence that Copland preferred his original rhythmic notation. This was discovered through his restoration of the original notation in the revised 1955 edition. 28 Research regarding Mark Hindsley’s band transcriptions was done by Earle Suydam Gregory and documented in his dissertation â€Å"Mark H. Hindsley: The Illinois Years. It documents the professional activities of Hindsley with emphasis on his research into the construction of instruments, his contributions to the University of Illinois band building, and his contributions to band literature through transcriptions. 27 28 Glazier, â€Å"A Comparison and Analysis of Aaron Coplands El Salon Mexico. † Crist, â€Å"The Compositional History of Aaron Copland’s Symphonic Ode. † 12 This includes a study of the scoring practices of Hindsley by examining a sample of his orchestral transcriptions for band and an analysis of how each nstrument was utilized. The research confirms and expands much of Hindsley’s own writings in Hindsley On Bands. 29 Procedures and Purpose of the Study I first became familiar with El Salon Mexico when I was playing clarinet on Suite from Billy the Kid with a youth orchestra. It was at this time I became interested in Copland’s other works for orchestra. I did not formally study the piece until I was asked to conduct Mark Hindsley’s band transcription for an audition at the Ohio State University. During the course of my study, I learned that there were several places in Hindsley’s score where the meters published in the band arrangement differ from the meters in Copland’s original orchestral score. These discrepancies led me to several questions. What is happening in the original orchestral score that may have initiated the meter changes in the band score? What are all of the meter changes that Hindsley utilized? Why did the arranger choose to use different meters and how w ere the meters chosen? Do other arrangements of El Salon Mexico also alter the meter? Did Copland approve of the changes Hindsley made? Is a new band arrangement of El Salon Mexico with the orchestral meters restored warranted? These are the questions that led me to develop this study in the manner that follows. At the start of this process, I determined that a new band arrangement of El Salon Mexico was warranted and could be an important addition to band literature. The changing of meters and beaming in arrangements, such as the Hindsley arrangement, can 29 Gregory, â€Å"Mark H. Hindsley: The Illinois Years. † 13 pose difficulties for musicians. In the case of El Salon Mexico, many college wind players learn the piece in the band arrangement, but then must relearn the different meters when called upon to play the original orchestral version. Regardless of whether changing the original meters for an arrangement is an improvement or not, the relearning of music in diff erent meters is a difficult task for both conductors and players. Since it is highly unlikely that a different edition of the orchestral version of El Salon Mexico will be available, I felt it was important that band directors have an arrangement in which the meters of the orchestral version were maintained. In addition, Hindsley’s arrangement was conceived for a large band with over 90 musicians. College bands of this size were much more common in the 1960s than they are today. Today’s collegiate bands use a smaller number of musicians, more in line with a wind ensemble instrumentation. This trend gained acceptance at many colleges and universities in the 1970s. 30 Even the majority of today’s large concert bands are significantly smaller than Hindsley’s model. The new band arrangement of El Salon Mexico was created both to restore the orchestral meters and modernize the instrumentation. I felt many of the questions posed could be answered by doing a comparative analysis between Copland’s orchestral score and Hindsley’s band arrangement. This was completed in two stages. First, I completed an overall study of the orchestral work, with special consideration for rhythm and meter. Second, I compared several aspects of the Hindsley band arrangement to the orchestral score. These aspects included instrumentation, meter, beaming, key signatures, and overall scoring. 30 Battisti, Winds of Change, 68. 14 Since a dialogue with either the composer or arranger was impossible, I decided to review all of the relevant sketches, manuscripts, and correspondence between Copland and Hindsley. To accomplish this I visited the Library of Congress and examined all of the materials relating to El Salon Mexico. It was my premise that an examination of Copland’s sketches and original manuscripts would lead to a deeper understanding of the work and its compositional process, as well as confirm possible errata found during the analysis. To discover any possible contact between Hindsley and Copland, I also searched for and examined correspondence relating to the band arrangement. Chapter Two examines Copland’s orchestral score of El Salon Mexico. This includes a background of its creation and how it fits into a shift in thinking at this point in Copland’s compositional output. It includes a brief formal analysis noting thematic development and use of folksong. The use of meter, beaming, and rhythm is also examined in depth. Chapter Three discusses Hindsley’s arrangement of El Salon Mexico for band. This will include changes made by Hindsley in the band arrangement pertaining to instrumentation, meter, beaming, key signatures, and overall scoring. All metric alterations in the Hindsley are documented and cataloged according to the type of alteration made, and the origins of these alterations are explored. The publication history, relevant correspondence, revisions to the original band manuscript and errata are also be examined. Chapter Four compares the new arrangement for band, created by myself, to the Mark Hindsley band arrangement and Copland’s original orchestral score. It includes a discussion of the decision making process regarding instrumentation, use of key 15 signatures, overall scoring, meters, and beaming. It also documents changes made due to errata found in both the Hindsley band arrangement, as well as the original orchestral score. Chapter Five presents a summary of the findings of the study and provides suggestions for further research. Description of Appendices Appendix A: Copland, â€Å"Suggested Revisions on band arrangement of El Salon Mexico† Appendix B: Full score of El Salon Mexico for band arranged by Erika Svanoe 16 CHAPTER 2: El Salon Mexico for Orchestra In 1935 Copland organized a series of â€Å"one-man concerts† featuring the works of one living composer on each program. In observing the audiences at this series Copland stated â€Å"As I looked around at the all-too-familiar small group at these concerts, I knew that I wanted to see a larger and more varied audience for contemporary music. †31 At this time Copland was finishing El Salon Mexico in which he said he was experimenting with a different style of writing. He was not rejecting one kind of music for another, but felt it was time to try something new. 2 Copland considered the first version of the Symphonic Ode from 1929 to be the piece that marked the end of his most austere and complex compositions. The move toward a simpler style was a gradual transition in the works that followed. In retrospect it seems to me that the Ode marks the end of a certain period in my development as a composer. The works that follow it are no longer so grandly conceived. The Piano Variations (1930), the Short Symphony (1933), the Statements for Orchestra (1935) are more spare in sonority, more lean in texture. They are still compar atively difficult to perform and difficult for an audience to comprehend. 33 El Salon Mexico was first conceived while Copland was simultaneously working on two other works in the fall of 1932 in Mexico: Short Symphony and Statements. â€Å"These three works and their combined compositional histories document Copland’s 31 32 Copland and Perlis, Copland, 244. Copland and Perlis, Copland, 245. 33 Copland, â€Å"Composer in Brooklyn,† xxvi. 17 refinement of a simplified musical idiom that emphasizes aural accessibility and draws on the melodic resources of traditional tunes. 34 It is El Salon Mexico and its position in Copland’s compositional output as one of the first of several works to simplify his musical language that makes it particularly significant. Short Symphony is composed in a similar vein as Copland’s earlier works, such as the Piano Variations, which focuses on structural unity and uses a dissonant avant-guard style. Statements still utilizes this type of style, but focuses less on formal structure and is more episodic. Copland also hoped that the suggestive movement titles, such as â€Å"Militant† and â€Å"Cryptic,† would make the piece more palatable to the listening audience. El Salon Mexico also uses an episodic form, but focuses more on melody than these other works. 35 The reason for this shift toward melody comes primarily from the materials Copland chose to work with, which were inspired by the music he heard during his trip to Mexico in 1932. For several years prior to his trip, Copland had promised Carlos Chavez that he would visit Mexico. When Chavez promised him an all-Copland program by the Conservatorio Nacional de Mexico, he felt the time had come. He left New York on August 24, accompanied by Victor Kraft, and arrived in Laredo September 2, the morning of the concert. Copland remained in Mexico for five months. During Copland’s visit, Chavez took him to a dance hall in Mexico C ity called El Salon Mexico, known to the locals as â€Å"El Marro† or the policeman’s nightstick. It was a popular place for tourists who wanted a taste of how the local lower class sought 34 35 Crist, Music for the Common Man, 43. Crist, Music for the Common Man, 43-4. 18 entertainment. 36 The atmosphere of the place made an impression on Copland and he came away with the idea to create El Salon Mexico. El Salon Mexico had been ‘in the works’ since my first trip to Mexico in 1932 when I came away from that colorful dance hall in Mexico City with Chavez. I had read about the hall for the first time in a guidebook about tourist entertainment: ‘Harlem type night-club for the peepul, grand Cuban orchestra, Salon Mexico. Three halls: one for people dressed in your way, one for people dressed in overalls but shod, and one for the barefoot. ’ A sign on a wall of the dance hall read: ‘Please don’t throw lighted cigarette butts on the floor so the ladies don’t burn their feet. A guard, stationed at the bottom of the steps leading to the three halls, would nonchalantly frisk you as you started up the stairs to be sure you had checked all your ‘artillery’ at the door and to collect the 1 peso charged for admittance to any of the three halls. When the dance hall closed at 5:00 A. M. , it hardly seemed worthwhile to some of the overalled patrons to travel all the way home, so they curled themselves up on the chair around the walls for a quick two-hour snooze before going to a seven o’clock job in the morning. 37 Copland did not want to try to translate the profound side of Mexico into a musical work. He felt he did not know the country well enough to attempt this. Rather he wanted to reflect the spirit of the dance hall and his experiences he had there with the Mexican people as a tourist. The â€Å"people† were reflected in Copland’s use of traditional folksongs. Copland s tated â€Å"I began (as I often did) by collecting musical themes or tunes out of which a composition might eventually emerge. It seemed natural to use popular Mexican melodies for thematic material†¦My purpose was not merely to quote literally but to heighten without in any way falsifying the natural simplicity of Mexican tunes. 38 Having the piece sound â€Å"Mexican† was a concern of Copland’s. He wrote to Chavez expressing his concern â€Å"I am terribly afraid of what you will say of the ‘Salon Mexico’-perhaps it is not Mexican at all, and I would feel so foolish. But in America del 36 37 Crist, Music for the Common Man, 51. Copland and Perlis, Copland, 245. 38 Ibid. , 245. 19 Norte it may sound Mexican! †39 He wrote again to Chavez in 1935: â€Å"What it would sound like in Mexico I can’t imagine, but everyone here for whom I have played it seems to think it is very gay and amusing. 40 Once Chavez heard Copland perform the piano version, he agreed to conduct it once the orchestration was complete. The premiere took place on August 27, 1937 in Mexico City with Orquesta Sinfonica de Mexico at the Palacio de Bellas Artes. The music was well received by the musicians and public with newspapers stating the piece could be taken as Mexican music. The piece was immediately popular. Twenty-one orchestras had performed the piece by 1938. 41 The first American performance was conducted by Koussevitzky with the Boston Symphony Orchestra on October 14, 1938. Another significant performance was at the 1938 International Society for Contemporary Music concert in London where Copland met Benjamin Britten, who was responsible for introducing Copland to the publishing firm Boosey Hawkes. In a letter to Ralph Hawkes Britten wrote â€Å"I’m fearfully anxious for you to cash in on Aaron Copland – the American composer – now without a publisher since Cos Cob Press gave up. His El Salon Mexico was the br ightest thing of the festival†¦. I feel he’s a winner somehow. †42 Ralph Hawkes wrote to Copland August 12, 1938 expressing an interest in publishing El Salon Mexico. 3 Negotiations by written correspondence ensued and Copland eventually convinced the firm to publish Music for Radio as well. It was Ibid. , 246. Ibid. , 246. 41 Crist, Music for the Common Man, 43-4. 42 Mitchell and Reed, eds. , Letters from a Life, 566. 43 Ralph Hawkes to Aaron Copland, 12 August 1938, Aaron Copland Collection, Library of Congress. 20 40 39 Hawkes who suggested that more performances of El Salon Mexico would be possible if the instrumentation was slightly reduced and suggested that having a second version of the piece available with smaller instrumentation. 4 Instrumentation: The full instrumentation for El Salon Mexico is as follows: Piccolo 2 Flutes 2 Oboes English horn Clarinet in E-flat 2 Clarinets in B-flat Bass Clarinet in B-flat 2 Bassoons Contrabassoon 4 Horns in F 3 Trumpet s in C 3 Trombones Tuba Timpani Percussion Piano Strings (Violins, Violas, Cellos, Contrabasses) The percussion part calls for multiple instruments: xylophone, suspended cymbal, gourd, temple blocks, wood block, bass drum, snare drum, and tambour de Provence, which Copland describes as a long drum with a dull sound. The gourd was the only Mexican percussion instrument that he included in the piece. This may have been for the best, since several orchestras of the time had a difficulty acquiring a proper gourd for performances. Some of the wind instruments were marked in the score as â€Å"not essential to performance. † At the request of Ralph Hawkes, and likely seeing the opportunity for 44 Ralph Hawkes to Aaron Copland, 20 September 1938, Copland Collection. 21 more performances with a reduced instrumentation, Copland created an alternate scoring to accommodate this request, eliminating the need for the English Horn, Clarinet in Eflat, Bass Clarinet, Contrabassoon, and Tr umpet 3. Folksong Materials and Form Copland used several Mexican folk songs, found in published collections, as the basis for many of the melodies in El Salon Mexico. Two of the songs, â€Å"El Palo Verde† and â€Å"La Jesuita† were found in Cancionero Mexicano edited by Frances Toor. â€Å"El Mosco† and â€Å"La Malacate,† an indigenous dance tune, were found in El Folklore y la Musica Mexicana by Ruben M. Campos. These melodies are not usually used in their original form, but rather Copland derived new melodic material from them. 45 An excellent summary of Copland’s use of these folk songs comes from musicologist Gerald Abraham. When Boosey Hawkes published the miniature score, it was customary to provide analytical notes about the music. The publisher asked Abraham to write the notes for El Salon Mexico. 46 The four-page insert includes excerpts of the original folksong material and documents Copland’s alteration of these melodies into the thematic material used in the piece. Abraham notes the three most utilized melodies as â€Å"El Palo Verde,† La Jesusita,† and â€Å"El Mosco. † He describes the form of the piece as a â€Å"subtilised and elaborated ternary from, with a long introduction. †47 Abraham illustrates Copland’s alteration of each of the folksongs, as well as documents where material derived from each folksong appears in the piece. 45 Lee, Masterworks of 20th -Century Music, 119. 46 Dickenson, â€Å"Copland’s Earlier British Connections,† 169-70. 47 Abraham, â€Å"Aaron Copland: El Salon Mexico. † 22 Figure 2. 1: Folksong material used in El Salon Mexico48 EL SALON MEXICO  © Copyright 1939 The Aaron Copland Fund for Music, Inc. Copyright Renewed. Boosey Hawkes Inc, sole agent. Reprinted by permission. The melodic material from the opening is derived from the first strain of â€Å"El Palo Verde† Figure 2. : Copland, El Salon Mexi co, melodic material, mm. 8-13 EL SALON MEXICO  © Copyright 1939 The Aaron Copland Fund for Music, Inc. Copyright Renewed. Boosey Hawkes Inc, sole agent. Reprinted by permission. 48 Abraham, â€Å"Aaron Copland: El Salon Mexico. † 23 Beginning in measure 23, the trumpet solo is based on â€Å"La Jesusita† Figure 2. 3: Copland, El Salon Mexico, mm. 23-26, Trumpet EL SALON MEXICO  © Copyright 1939 The Aaron Copland Fund for Music, Inc. Copyright Renewed. Boosey Hawkes Inc, sole agent. Reprinted by permission. The duet between bassoon and bass clarinet starting at measure 39 is a rhythmically altered version of â€Å"El Mosco. Figure 2. 4: Copland, El Salon Mexico, mm. 39-44, Bassoon 1 EL SALON MEXICO  © Copyright 1939 The Aaron Copland Fund for Music, Inc. Copyright Renewed. Boosey Hawkes Inc, sole agent. Reprinted by permission. 24 At measure 61, the strings have material modified from the second strain of â€Å"El Palo Verde† This same material also ap pears twice more during the piece beginning at measures 145 and 353. Figure 2. 5: Copland, El Salon Mexico, mm. 61-64, Violin 1, 2, Viola (compressed) EL SALON MEXICO  © Copyright 1939 The Aaron Copland Fund for Music, Inc. Copyright Renewed. Boosey Hawkes Inc, sole agent. Reprinted by permission. The melody in the strings beginning at measure 76 is derived partly from the second strain of â€Å"El Mosco. † This theme concludes the section that Abraham labels as the introduction. Figure 2. 6: Copland, El Salon Mexico, mm. 76-81, Violin 1 EL SALON MEXICO  © Copyright 1939 The Aaron Copland Fund for Music, Inc. Copyright Renewed. Boosey Hawkes Inc, sole agent. Reprinted by permission. The Allegro Vivace begins at measure 103 and marks the start of what Abraham calls the first section of the ternary form. It begins with material related to the opening measures illustrated above in Figure 2. 2. This is followed by a theme derived from both 25 he altered material from â⠂¬Å"El Palo Verde† at the beginning of the piece, and the second strain of â€Å"El Mosco. † Figure 2. 7: Copland, El Salon Mexico, mm. 106-110, Clarinet 1 EL SALON MEXICO  © Copyright 1939 The Aaron Copland Fund for Music, Inc. Copyright Renewed. Boosey Hawkes Inc, sole agent. Reprinted by permission. New material is added to the beginning of the previous theme at measure 135 but is very similar. Figure 2. 8: Copland, El Salon Mexico, mm. 135-139, Violin 1 EL SALON MEXICO  © Copyright 1939 The Aaron Copland Fund for Music, Inc. Copyright Renewed. Boosey Hawkes Inc, sole agent. Reprinted by permission. 6 The material from Figure 2. 5 returns at measure 145 and is followed by a variant of Figure 2. 2 from measures 175-182. This concludes the Allegro Vivace section and what Abraham labels the first large section of a ternary form. The second section of this form begins at measure 183 at the tempo change marked â€Å"Moderato molto (rubato). † The clarinet sol o that follows (Fig. 2. 9) is a version of Figure 2. 7. Abraham states this version â€Å"recurs several times in the section as a species of refrain, holding it together. † One such reiteration is a rhythmic variant in the English horn at measure 256. (Fig. 2. 10) Figure 2. 9: Copland, El Salon Mexico, mm. 185-190, Clarinet 1 Figure 2. 10: Copland, El Salon Mexico, mm. 256-260, English horn EL SALON MEXICO  © Copyright 1939 The Aaron Copland Fund for Music, Inc. Copyright Renewed. Boosey Hawkes Inc, sole agent. Reprinted by permission. 27 At measure 211, melodic material in the solo clarinet is derived from â€Å"La Jesusita† and is then restated in the strings. Figure 2. 11: Copland, El Salon Mexico, mm. 211-214, Clarinet 1 EL SALON MEXICO  © Copyright 1939 The Aaron Copland Fund for Music, Inc. Copyright Renewed. Boosey Hawkes Inc, sole agent. Reprinted by permission. Abraham describes the remainder of the middle section consisting of rhythmic developmen t of this tune and material from the first section. Copland writes of the section â€Å"before the final climax I present the folk tunes simultaneously in their original keys and rhythms. The result is a kind of polytonality that achieves the frenetic whirl I had in mind before the end, when all is resolved with a plain unadorned triad. †49 The return of the main section occurs at measure 324. The material is very similar to what had been heard previously but with slightly altered keys. The piece ends with the fanfare-like material from the opening measures. 0 Manuscript materials and changes in rhythmic notation Copland himself noted that orchestras had a difficult time performing El Salon Mexico. â€Å"El Salon was not easy to perform; it presented rhythmic intricacies for the 49 50 Copland and Perlis, Copland, 246. Abraham, â€Å"Aaron Copland: El Salon Mexico. † 28 conductor and the players. †51 There are many places in the orchestral version where eighth no tes are beamed over a barline, dotted barlines and brackets are used to indicate an alteration of normal rhythmic stress, and more than one time signature is often indicated or simply implied by the placement of accents. The need for this kind of rhythmic notation can be observed upon examination of the manuscript materials in the Aaron Copland Collection cataloged at the Library of Congress. Description of the manuscript materials The initial â€Å"Sketches† of El Salon Mexico are cataloged at the Library of Congress in the Aaron Copland Collection as ARCO 28. 2. It appears that Copland began his initial sketches of in March of 1933, which is the earliest date noted on the manuscript. These sketches are in pencil, do not always follow the progression of the piece, and have large sections crossed out. They illustrate a working out of melodic material and experimentation with different meters. The â€Å"Piano Sketch† (ARCO 28-A) is dated 1934 on the front cover. T he date at the end of the manuscript notes it was completed in July, 1934. The Piano Sketch is a 21page manuscript that uses between two and four staves and progresses through the piece from beginning to end. Revisions were still being made as some sections are crossed out, but then continue on sequentially with revised material. Copland wrote most of the Piano Sketch initially in pen and his original, more complex concept of the meter and beaming appear in pen. Many of the meters and beaming that appear in Leonard Bernstein’s piano arrangements appear in the Piano Sketch. There are also marks in lead and blue pencil throughout this manuscript. Many of the pencil markings indicate instruments for 51 Copland and Perlis, Copland, 247. 29 orchestration or possible changes to the choice in meter. While the pencil indications of meter do not match the meters of the final published orchestral version exactly, they are certainly less complicated than the original metric indicatio ns that appear in pen and are a step closer to what was published in the orchestral score. There are three orchestral manuscript scores cataloged at the Library of Congress. One is cataloged as the â€Å"Rough Orchestral Score† (ARCO 28. 3) and notes â€Å"began Aug. 9, 1934. † The manuscript is in pencil, but is incomplete and only four pages in length. The second â€Å"Full Score (Draft)† (ARCO 28. 1) is a complete draft in pencil, but has no date indicated. The final â€Å"Full Score† (ARCO 28) is complete and mostly completed in ink with some red and blue pencil marks indicating rehearsal numbers and time signatures respectively. The date on the front cover is 1936. 2 There are several arrangements and other works that are significant to the study of changes in rhythmic notation in El Salon Mexico beyond the manuscript materials. These include Bernstein’s and Hindsley’s various arrangements of the work, as well as Copland’s 192 9 and 1955 versions of the Symphonic Ode for orchestra, which is discussed later in this chapter. The table below summarizes all relevant documents in chronological order. 52 El Salon Mexico manuscripts. Aaron Copland Collection. Library of Congress. 30 Year 1929 1933 1934 1934 c. 1934 1936 1939 1941 1943 1955 1966 1972 Document name Symphonic Ode (for orchestra) Sketches El Salon Mexico Piano Sketch El Salon Mexico Rough Orchestral Score El Salon Mexico Full Score (Draft) El Salon Mexico Full Score El Salon Mexico El Salon Mexico (for orchestra) El Salon Mexico (for piano solo) El Salon Mexico (for two pianos) Revised Symphonic Ode (for orchestra) 1st Version manusciript El Salon Mexico (for band) El Salon Mexico (for band) Composer/Arranger Other information Copland withdrawn, revised in 1955 Copland ARCO 28. 2 manuscript Copland ARCO 28-A manuscript Copland ARCO 28. manuscript Copland ARCO 28. 1 manuscript Copland ARCO 28 manuscript Copland published Copland/Bernstein publishe d Copland/Bernstein published Copland published Copland/Hindsley ARCO 28-D manuscript Copland/Hindsley published Table 2. 1: Summary of published scores and manuscripts Changes in Rhythmic Notation One of the reasons for the â€Å"rhythmic intricacies† that Copland mentioned is that he originally conceived of groupings of eighth notes in groups of twos and threes that would call for shifting irregular time signatures. 53 In the Piano Sketch these groupings occur starting on the beat. While time signatures do not appear in ink on the Piano Sketch manuscript for the measures in the figure below, the groupings and barlines appear to be the same as Leonard Bernstein’s arrangement for two pianos with the appropriate time signatures added. The one change in rhythm between the two examples is the eighth rest that appears at the end of the third measure. However, this rest does appear in the orchestral version. â€Å"Irregular† time signatures are defined for the pur poses of this study as meters that have uneven groupings of eighth notes. For example, a time signature of 7/8 could have an eighth note grouping of 2+2+3. This would be defined as â€Å"irregular. † Other meters that would be included in this definition would be 5/8, 8/8, and 10/8. These irregular meters are considered â€Å"shifting† when the time signatures rapidly change from measure to measure. If a regular meter (3/4, 4/4) appears during a string of irregular meters, the term â€Å"shifting irregular meters† still applies because the effect as a whole is a succession of changes between groups of 2 and 3 eighth notes. 1 53 Figure 2. 12: Copland, ARCO 28-A (Piano Sketch), Rhythmic notation, mm. 1-3 Figure 2. 13: Copland/Bernstein, El Salon Mexico for Two Pianos, Rhythmic notation, mm. 1-3 Figure 2. 14: Copland, El Salon Mexico, Rhythmic notation, mm. 1-5 EL SALON MEXICO  © Copyright 1939 The Aaron Copland Fund for Music, Inc. Copyright Renewed. Boosey Hawkes Inc, sole agent. Reprinted by permission. As the previous examples illustrate, there were drastic changes in meter between the Piano Sketch and the final orchestral version. These kinds of alterations to meter occur throughout the orchestral version and are particularly prevalent during sections with faster tempi, which tend to be more rhythmic. In most cases, the meters are changed from shifting irregular meters to a more constant regular meter of 3/4 or 4/4. This forces rhythms that originally occurred on the beat to be played as syncopations. 32 Figure 2. 15: Copland, El Salon Mexico, mm. 124-128, Violin 1 Figure 2. 16: Copland, ARCO 28-A (Piano Sketch), Corresponding music

Tuesday, May 26, 2020

The Louisiana Purchase, The Oregon Treaty, And The...

There were many important events that helped to achieve the goal of Manifest Destiny. For example, the Louisiana Purchase, the Oregon Treaty, and the California Gold Rush all helped achieve this goal. All of these events had either increased the amount of land in the United States, or increased the population of people living in Western United States. One event that occurred during the time of Manifest Destiny was the Louisiana Purchase. In the early 1800s, President Thomas Jefferson wanted to get control over the Mississippi River, where many farmers traded. He sent negotiators to France to offer to buy New Orleans. At that time, New Orleans was the main trading port on the Mississippi, whoever controlled New Orleans controlled the Mississippi and the amount of trade on the river. Jefferson told the negotiators to offer France $2 million but he said to go as high as $10 million. Napoleon Bonaparte, emperor of France counter-offered and said that the United States should pay $15 million for all of The Louisiana Territory. Jefferson was happy and the U.S. accepted the offer. After the purchase, France’s finance minister, Charles de Talleyrand, sent a letter thanking Thomas Jefferson for purchasing the Louisiana Territory. He said, â€Å"I hope you see that both countries will benefit from this purchase. The United States h as increased in size tremendously. The French can now wage a more effective war with Great Britain.† (Document 2a). There is a map titled, â€Å"Major LandShow MoreRelatedExpansion of the United States during President Jefferson and President Polk535 Words   |  3 PagesUnited States. Great treaties and compromises signed by both will be forever recognized in history to the help of expanded our country. Jefferson conducted one of the largest territory gains in United States history with the Louisiana Purchase. Louisiana was France territory, originally from Spain; and Napoleon was already eager to sell because his empire was expanding and needed money, especially from the loss at Santo Domingo. France did not want Britain to take Louisiana because they controlledRead MoreManifest Destiny and Foreign Policy1135 Words   |  5 Pagesduring the 19th century. Westward expansion A.K.A. â€Å"Manifest destiny† led to America’s rapid acquisition of the old Mexican Southwest and the Oregon Territory that marked the fulfillment of President James K. Polks expansionistic campaign promises. Polk ran on only one platform -- westward expansion. He wanted to officially claim the southern part of Oregon Territory; annex the American Southwest from Mexico; and annex Texas. Thus, Polk’s desire for land would eventually cause a great deal of sufferingRead MoreManifest Destiny By James K. Polk1257 Words   |  6 Pageskilling of Indians who were in the way of the belief of Manifest Destiny. The president that followed through with the belief of Manifest Destiny the most is that of James K. Polk. His war with Mexico and strong stand against the British about the Oregon territory solidified Manifest Destiny. The Unites States of America and its government drilled into its citizens that they should spread the political idea of democracy for the common good of the people. The United States government has establishedRead MoreWestward Expansion Of The United States1017 Words   |  5 Pages it continuously proved to be aggressive, racist, and imperialistic. Enthusiasm over territorial expansion began in 1803 when Napoleon decided to offer the United States the entire Louisiana Territory and later escalated with the issues of Texas and Oregon. In the 1820s, the United States offered, twice, to purchase Texas from the Mexican government. However, it was not until 1824 that Mexico enacted a colonization law offering cheap land and a four-year exemption from taxes to any American willingRead MoreEssay on The Extension of Slavery Into the American West 1658 Words   |  7 Pageson the issues surrounding the possible extension of slavery into the following areas: the Missouri Territory and the Louisiana Purchase in general, Texas (annexation), the Oregon Territory, California (annexation), Nebraska (unorganized), and the Kansas Territory. The initial conflict over the extension of slavery westward focused on the territory acquired in the Louisiana Purchase in general and, in specific, application for statehood by the Missouri Territory. In 1819, there were 11 slave andRead MoreThe American West And American History Essay1724 Words   |  7 Pagesacross the Appalachian Mountains to explore, find resources, and find new settlements. Towards the 1800’s many white Americans from the east began to settle in the western part of the country â€Å"the Great Plain† after the United States got the Louisiana Purchase, by doing so they have to approach native Indians who have been living there for many years. President Thomas Jefferson commissioned the expedition, first set out the Lewis and Clark expedition to explore and chart the new territory in 1804Read More Western Expansion Essay4115 Words   |  17 Pagesfurther expansion of the frontier and many disappointed pioneers even backtracked from the west to the east. When the treaty of Paris was signed in 1783, the Americans had thought that they had enough land between the Atlantic coast and the Mississippi river. Yet in 1803, by the Louisiana Purchase, the area of the United States doubled and not long after, it was augmented by the half-purchase-half-conquest of Florida. By the end of 1820, as many as 6 states were created, east of Mississippi-Indiana (1816)Read MoreGive Me Liberty Chapter 13 Notes1842 Words   |  8 Pagesmoving west The Mormons’ Trek Went to modern-day Utah: founded by Joseph Smith (polygamy) National boundaries meant little to those who moved West The Mexican Frontier: New Mexico and California Mexico achieved independence from Spain in 1821, issue of slavery arose. Mexico could now trade w/ the US! California Californios - Mexican cattle ranchers By 1840, it was already linked commercially w/ the US The Texas Revolt Mexican gov, in order to develop the region, accepted an offer by MosesRead MoreThe American Civil War1765 Words   |  8 Pagesand he would not have gotten the annexation of Texas and also the lands that the US got in the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo. The argument is that because of Clay and his stance on policies leading to the annexation of Texas that if Clay was chief executive, that Texas would not have been admitted into the Union. Clay also seemed to have this view also with the California territory as well as the Oregon Country. Clay had the vision that those areas were â€Å"not in the nation’s interest† to make themRead MoreImagine a land, untouched by modern civilization, its resources untapped, its plants grow wild and3300 Words   |  14 Pagesthe Americas. Christopher Columbus, being the most celebrated of the many explorers, had found many islands in what is now known as the Bahamas. The tribes of islanders he came across were nothing more than animals to him in his quest for power and gold. After reporting his findings, the news spread across Europe that there was uncharted land across the ocean. This land promised riches by the boatload, whose native people who were more than willing to give help. The native people were so easy to take